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Cazadores salmantinos colaboran con el IREC en la lucha contra el virus de la fiebre hemorrágica de Crimea-Congo

La Delegación de Salamanca de la Federación de Caza de Castilla y León colabora con el IREC en la recogida de muestras cuyo análisis permitirá realizar un mapa epidemiológico del virus de la enfermedad de Crimea-Congo en la provincia

Análisis de los escenarios de sobreabundancia de ungulados silvestres en Europa

Una revisión científica describe los principales escenarios de la sobreabundancia de los ungulados silvestres en Europa y sus causas, así como los indicadores de cambio ecológico más adecuados para su monitorización, diagnóstico y gestión.

Un método innovador para detectar la presencia de ARN del virus de la Covid-19 en el medio ambiente

Desarrollado por un equipo de enfermeros, biólogos, médicos y veterinarios, y hasta un físico, en una auténtica apuesta por el concepto “Una Salud” para combatir la Covid-19, el método permitirá mejorar la detección temprana del virus, monitorizar su circulación e identificar objetivos para un control más eficiente.

Alimentarse en vertederos podría convertir a las cigüeñas en vehículos diseminadores de bacterias multirresistentes

Un equipo multidisciplinar de científicos revela que las cigüeñas blancas que se alimentan en los vertederos urbanos se contaminan con cepas multirresistentes de bacterias como la Escherichia coli, pudiendo dispersarlas largas distancias.

Distribución y variabilidad genética del virus de la fiebre hemorrágica de Crimea-Congo en el suroeste de España

Se detecta el virus de la fiebre hemorrágica de Crimea-Congo en garrapatas procedentes de ungulados silvestres de diferentes provincias del suroeste de España. Su amplia distribución y elevada variabilidad genética podría conllevar la aparición de nuevas cepas del virus en un futuro, con el consiguiente riesgo epidemiológico.

Científicos del IREC armonizarán la recopilación de datos poblacionales de fauna silvestre para mejorar los sistemas de vigilancia sanitaria.

Las aplicaciones de este proyecto de investigación en el ámbito de la vigilancia sanitaria y el control de enfermedades permitirán mejorar nuestra respuesta ante la ocurrencia de brotes de enfermedades compartidas entre la fauna, el ganado y el ser humano.

Identifican la mejor estrategia para administrar tratamientos sanitarios a ciervos silvestres por vía oral

Científicos del IREC identifican la estrategia más efectiva para administrar tratamientos orales de carácter sanitario a las poblaciones silvestres de ciervo ibérico mediante el uso de cebos alimenticios

First description of a natural infection with spleen and kidney necrosis virus in zebrafish.

Zebrafish has become a popular research model in the last years, and several diseases affecting zebrafish research facilities have been reported. However, only one case of naturally occurring viral infections was described for this species. In 2015, infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV ) was detected in zebrafish from a research facility in Spain. Affected fish showed lethargy, loss of appetite, abnormal swimming, distention of the coelomic cavity and, in the most severe cases, respiratory distress, pale gills and petechial haemorrhages at the base of fins. Cytomegaly was the most relevant histopathological finding in organs and tissues, sometimes associated to degenerative and necrotic changes. ISKNV belongs to the relatively newly defined genus Megalocytivirus , family Iridoviridae, comprising large, icosahedral cytoplasmic DNA viruses. This is the first case of naturally occurring Megalocytivirus infection in zebrafish research facilities, associated with morbidity. The virus has been identified based on both pathologic and genetic evidence, to better understand the pathogenesis of the infection in zebrafish and the phylogenetic relationship with other iridoviruses. Given the ability of megalocytiviruses to cross‐species boundaries, it seems necessary to implement stringent biosecurity practices as these infections may invalidate experimental data and have major impact on laboratory and cultured fish.

Skeletal anomalies in reared Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) juveniles: a radiographic approach.

Reared Senegalese sole Solea senegalensis Kaup show a high incidence of vertebral anomalies; however, little is known about its skeletal anomaly profile in the later farming phases. The purpose of this study was to provide a detailed description and quantification of the most common skeletal anomalies in reared Senegalese sole in the juvenile stage by means of computed radiography. A total of 374 Senegalese sole were classified according to the external morphology of the fish as normal or altered and then radiographed in latero-lateral and in dorso-ventral projections. Radiographic evaluation of anomalies focused especially on vertebral body anomalies (VBA) and vertebral column deviations (VCD). The 2 orthogonal projections provided a more complete visualization of the skeleton. Approximately 75% of the individuals showed at least 1 anomaly, while VBA and/or VCD were detected in 48.9% of the specimens. Regarding external morphology, 88% of the fish were categorized as normal, although about 72% of these normal fish displayed abnormalities in radiographies. The most frequent anomalies consisted of deformations of the caudal complex plates (hypurals, parhypural and epural), preurals and caudal vertebrae. Scoliosis was the most prevalent among VCD, affecting the caudal area in almost 15% of the individuals. The anomaly profile at the juvenile stages showed some differences compared to what has been reported previously in earlier stages of development. In light of these results, further investigation into the progression of skeletal anomalies over time and the causative factors at later stages is required.

Susceptibility of Zebrafish to Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Infection.

The zebrafish, Danio rerio, has become recognized as a valuable model for infectious diseases. Here we evaluated the susceptibility of zebrafish to be infected with the mammalian vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). Both zebrafish cells and embryos were highly susceptible to VSV infection. Mortalities exceeded 80% in infected embryos and were preceded by the invasion of the central nervous system by VSV. Live imaging of the infection with GFP-VSV as well as virus titration from infected fish confirmed the viral replication. Immunohistochemical analysis of embryonic fish provided evidence of viral antigens as well as of the apoptosis marker caspase-3 in the brain, eye, liver, pronephros, and skeletal muscle. So far, this is the first report describing the susceptibility of zebrafish to the mammalian virus VSV.

Long-term affected flat oyster (Ostrea edulis) haemocytes show differential gene expression profiles from naïve oysters in response to Bonamia ostreae

European flat oyster (Ostrea edulis) production has suffered a severe decline due to bonamiosis. The responsible parasite enters in oyster haemocytes, causing an acute inflammatory response frequently leading to death. We used an immune-enriched oligo-microarray to understand the haemocyte response to Bonamia ostreae by comparing expression profiles between naïve (NS) and long-term affected (AS) populations along a time series (1 d, 30 d, 90 d). AS showed a much higher response just after challenge, which might be indicative of selection for resistance. No regulated genes were detected at 30 d in both populations while a notable reactivation was observed at 90 d, suggesting parasite latency during infection. Genes related to extracellular matrix and protease inhibitors, up-regulated in AS, and those related to histones, down-regulated in NS, might play an important role along the infection. Twenty-four candidate genes related to resistance should be further validated for selection programs aimed to control bonamiosis.

Skeletal Anomalies in Senegalese Sole (Solea senegalensis), an Anosteocytic Boned Flatfish Species.

Skeletal anomalies affect animal welfare and cause important economic problems in aquaculture. Despite the high frequency of skeletal problems in reared Solea senegalensis, there is lack of information regarding the histological features of normal and deformed vertebrae in this flatfish. The aim of this study was to describe the histopathological and radiographical appearance of vertebral body anomalies. Sixty-seven juvenile fish were radiographically examined 104 or 105 days after hatching. Through radiographic images, vertebral segments were selected and processed for histopathological examination from 7 normal and 7 affected fish. Alterations in bone shape and vertebral fusion were the most significant anomalies in the vertebral bodies. These alterations occurred most frequently between the last 3 abdominal vertebrae and the first 10 caudal centra. Radiographically, deformed vertebrae showed flattening of the endplates and narrowing of the intervertebral spaces. The radiographic findings concurred with the histological lesions where affected vertebrae exhibited irregular endplates and changes in trabecular bone. Radiolucent cartilaginous tissue was evident in the endplates of the deformed vertebra and, in some cases, the cartilaginous material extended from the growth zone into the intervertebral space. These changes were likely the primary alterations that led to vertebral fusion. Fused vertebrae were often reshaped and showed a reorganization of the trabeculae. The formation of metaplastic cartilage is frequent in a variety of anomalies affecting teleost species.

Integrating genomic and morphological approaches in fish pathology research: The case of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) enteromyxosis.

Enteromyxosis, caused by Enteromyxum scophthalmi, is one of the most devastating diseases stemming from myxozoan parasites in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.), being a limiting factor for its production. The disease develops as a cachectic syndrome, associated to catarrhal enteritis and leukocytic depletion, with morbidity and mortality rates usually reaching 100%. To date, no effective treatment exists and there are different unknown issues concerning its pathogenesis. The gross and microscopic lesions associated to enteromyxosis have been thoroughly described, and several morphopathological studies have been carried out to elucidate the mechanisms of this host-parasite interaction. More recently, efforts have been focused on a multidisciplinary approach, combining histopathology and transcriptome analysis, which has provided significant advances in the understanding of the pathogenesis of this parasitosis. RNA-Seq technology was applied at early and advanced stages of the disease on fishes histologically evaluated and classified based on their lesional degree. In the same way, the transcriptomic data were analyzed in relation to the morphopathological picture and the course of the disease. In this paper, a comprehensive review of turbot enteromyxosis is presented, starting from the disease description up to the most novel information extracted by an integrated approach on the infection mechanisms and host response. Further, we discuss ongoing strategies toward a full understanding of host-pathogen interaction and the identification of suitable biomarkers for early diagnosis and disease management strategies.

Early stages of Margaritifera margaritifera glochidiosis in Atlantic salmon: Morphopathological characterization.

Freshwater mussels of the order Unionida encyst into the fish mucosa to metamorphose and complete their life cycle, causing a parasitic disease known as glochidiosis. This parasitic stage represents a bottleneck for the survival of naiads, particularly for critically endangered species as Margaritifera margaritifera; however, little is known about the events occurring during this critical stage. Therefore, this study aimed to histologically characterize the development of M. margaritifera glochidiosis in Atlantic salmon to get insight into the pathogenesis of this interaction. Fish exposed to glochidia were sampled during the first 44 days post‐exposure, and organs were observed by stereomicroscopy and light microscopy. Glochidia attached to the gills by pinching the lamellar epithelium, whereupon an acute proliferative branchitis engulfed most of the larvae. However, during the first 14 days, a severe detachment of unviable glochidia occurred, associated with the presence of pleomorphic inflammatory infiltrate and epithelial degeneration. In the cases where larvae remained attached, a chronification of the lesions with none to scarce inflammation was observed. These results provide key information to better understand the complex host–parasite interaction during the early stages of glochidiosis and provide valuable information to optimize artificial rearing of naiads in conservation of threatened freshwater mussel populations.

Immunohistochemical expression of E–cadherin in different tissues of the teleost fish Scophthalmus maximus.

E–cadherin is an evolutionary conserved protein, whose main role as the principal component of adherens junctions is supporting epithelial cell–cell adhesion. It is an essential molecule for the maintenance of the epithelial barrier function and the analysis of its immunohistochemical expression is a valuable resource in morphopathological, ontogenetic and pathogenesis studies in mammals. As well, there is an increasing understanding of the importance of E-cadherin in the physiology of the immune system and the development of the immune response. Mucosal health is a primary issue in aquaculture research; nevertheless, there is a lack of immunohistochemical studies of cell junction proteins in fish species. In this work, an immunohistochemical technique was optimized in Bouin- and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues of turbot Scophthalmus maximus, employing a commercial antibody raised against human E-cadherin. The specificity of the antibody in recognizing the molecule in this teleost species was tested by western blot and mass spectrometry-based proteomic analyses. The assays showed a good specificity and indicated that the antibody recognizes the well conserved cytoplasmic domain of the protein. Immunohistochemistry showed the localisation of E-cadherin at cell-cell contact in the epithelia of the different organs, between the hepatocytes and the pancreatic acinar cells, as well as in the reticulo-epithelial stroma of the thymus. Also, the immunoreaction was observed in the cells constituting the melano-macrophage centres in the spleen and kidney. No immunostaining was detected, as expected, only in the heart and brain. No significant difference was noticed between the two fixative used for collecting the tissues samples. This is the first description of E-cadherin immunohistochemical expression in several tissues of a teleost. The immunohistochemical technique represents a useful tool to be used in the different areas of fish health research.

Effects of Enteromyxum spp. (Myxozoa) infection in the regulation of intestinal E-cadherin: turbot against gilthead sea bream

ABSTRACT:Enteromyxoses are relevant diseases for turbot and gilthead sea bream aquaculture. The myxozoan parasites invade the intestinal mucosa, causing a cachectic syndrome associated with intestinal barrier alteration; nonetheless, their pathological impact is different. Turbot infected by Enteromyxum scophthalmi develop more severe intestinal lesions, reaching mortality rates of 100%, whereas in E. leei ‐infected gilthead sea bream, the disease progresses slowly, and mortality rates are lower. The mechanisms underlying the different pathogenesis are still unclear. We studied the distribution and expression changes of E‐cadherin, a highly conserved protein of the adherens junctions, in the intestine of both species by immunohistochemistry and quantitative PCR, using the same immunohistochemical protocol and common primers. The regular immunostaining pattern observed in control fish turned into markedly irregular in parasitized turbot, showing an intense immunoreaction at the host–parasite interface. Nevertheless, E‐cadherin gene expression was not significantly modulated in this species. On the contrary, no evident changes in the protein distribution were noticed in gilthead sea bream, whereas a significant gene downregulation occurred in advanced infection. The results contribute to the understanding of the different host–parasite interactions in enteromyxoses. Host and parasite cells appear to establish diverse relationships in these species, which could underlie the different pathological picture.

Modelos matemáticos para mejorar el control de enfermedades infecciosas

Un modelo matemático permite comprender la dinámica epidemiológica de la peste porcina africana (PPA), en la que el jabalí es un actor clave, constituyendo una herramienta fundamental para el control de brotes epidémicos y evitar situaciones de emergencia sanitaria.

STOP la recogida de tortugas moras como mascota

La recolección de ejemplares de tortuga mora para su tenencia como mascota en Marruecos podría contribuir al declive de sus poblaciones silvestres en uno de los bastiones de la especie en el norte de África

Depredación de tortugas por cuervos: ¿qué papel juega el matorral?

La depredación de crías y juveniles de tortuga mora por parte del cuervo podría constituir una amenaza para la conservación del quelonio en hábitats antrópicos del norte de África con escasa cobertura de matorral.

La red social de interacciones entre ungulados silvestres y el ganado

El uso de diversas metodologías complementarias permite identificar de una forma más detallada la red social de interacciones entre ungulados silvestres y el ganado en zonas donde coexisten, proporcionando las claves para la gestión adecuada de enfermedades infecciosas compartidas y reducir el riesgo de transmisión de patógenos.

Los antioxidantes mitigan el acortamiento de los telómeros en pollos de cigüeña

Se demuestra la relación entre estrés oxidativo y acortamiento de los telómeros in vivo, en pollos de cigüeña en condiciones naturales de libertad, poniendo de manifiesto la importancia del estrés fisiológico como un predictor de la esperanza de vida y las probabilidades de supervivencia.

Buenas prácticas en relación con la caza del jabalí y la prevención de riesgos sanitarios

Los jabalíes forman parte de nuestro medio natural y la gestión de sus poblaciones debe hacerse de forma sensata y en convivencia con otras actividades como la agricultura, la ganadería, la conservación y el turismo de naturaleza. Este manual de buenas prácticas propone una serie de actuaciones para contribuir a mejorar la convivencia entre el jabalí y su aprovechamiento cinegético y las demás actividades y recursos del medio rural, con especial referencia al control de su sobreabundancia para la prevención de riesgos sanitarios.

Jabalíes y Peste Porcina Africana

La peste porcina africana (PPA) es una enfermedad vírica letal y altamente contagiosa que afecta tanto al cerdo doméstico como al jabalí. El virus ha comenzado a expandirse por el norte y este de Europa, y si llegase a España, los impactos sobre el sector porcino, la caza y el medio ambiente serían dramáticos.

El IREC participa en un programa para desarrollar vacunas contra las garrapatas en Uganda

Científicos del IREC participan en un programa para el desarrollo de vacunas dedicadas al control de las garrapatas en bovinos en Uganda. El proyecto incluye capacitar al personal ugandés para empezar la producción de la vacuna a nivel nacional.

Melatonina para la primera producción in vitro de embriones de ciervo Ibérico a partir de animales muertos.

Científicos del IREC producen por primera vez embriones de ciervo Ibérico in vitro a partir de células germinales de hembras muertas, siendo los únicos del mundo que producen embriones de esta subespecie de ciervo.

Distribution patterns of saprolegniosis cutaneous lesions in wild and farmed brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) obtained using a geographic information system (GIS) (Fregeneda-Grandes y Aller-Gancedo , 2019)

A retrospective study was conducted using 250 clinical records of brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) with saprolegniosis by Saprolegnia parasitica, which had been collected from 8 rivers and 1 fish farm in the province of León (Spain). A geographic information system (GIS) was used to obtain skin lesion distribution patterns in males and females. Lesions in wild brown trout affected 15.31 ± 13.33% of the body surface, with a mean of 12.76 ± 6.56 lesions per fish. In addition, 51.23% of wild trout presented lesions with necrosis of the skin or fins. The pattern obtained when not distinguishing between sexes indicated that saprolegniosis lesions are mainly located above the lateral line and most frequently affect the dorsal cephalic region, the adipose fin, the peduncle and the caudal fin. However, differences were observed between males and females. Farmed trout presented a lower percentage of affected body surface (2.06 ± 4.36) and a lower number of lesions with and without necrosis because they received preventive treatment for saprolegniosis.

Biocontrol of saprolegniosis in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum) using two bacterial isolates (LE89 and LE141) of Pseudomonas fluorescens (González-Palacios et al., 2019)

The probiotic activity of 15 bacterial isolates that inhibit Saprolegnia parasitica in vitro was tested for the biocontrol of saprolegniosis in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum), adding the bacteria to tank water for 14 days at a concentration of 106 bacteria ml−1 water. Pseudomonas fluorescens LE89 and Pseudomonas fluorescens LE141 were effective in controlling experimental infection with S. parasitica since of the fish treated with LE89, 24.5% ± 16.27% (p < 0.05) became infected, as did 42.8% ± 8.41% (p < 0.05) of those treated with LE141. Given their protective effect when administered in water, their effect was also studied when administered in feed before and after experimental infection. Both bacterial isolates survived low pH levels and the action of bile, grew in skin and intestinal mucus, were resistant to several antibiotics and survived in feed; however, neither of the two isolates prevented S. parasitica infection when administered in feed.

First record of an outbreak of saprolegniosis by Saprolegnia parasitica in Pseudochondrostoma duriense (Coelho, 1985) (Cyprinidae) (Aller-Gancedo et al., 2016)

An outbreak of saprolegniosis by Saprolegnia parasitica in the cyprinid fish Pseudochondrostoma duriense (Coelho, 1985) is described here for the first time. P. duriense is endemic to the Iberian Peninsula. Hundreds of sick and dead fish appeared in the River Bernesga (Spain). Skin and subcutaneous skeletal musculature were infected. Fish showed multi-focal dermatitis with loss of the epidermis, degeneration and necrosis of the skeletal muscle fibres, ulcerative keratoconjunctivitis and anterior uvitis.

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Prevalencia y diversidad de Borrelia sensu lato en garrapatas y micromamíferos en una Reserva Natural del noroeste de España endémica para borreliosis de Lyme. Incidencia en la población humana adyacente.

Para determinar la prevalencia y diversidad de Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) en una Resserva Natural (Sierra del Sueve) endémica del noroeste de España, así como el riesgo de exposición a garrapatas infectadas en Asturias, entre 2012 y 2014 se recogieron 1013 garrapatas de la vegetación y 70 micromamíferos. Además, se realizó un aálisis retrospectivo de los casos humanos de borreliosis de Lyme registrados en el hospital local (Cabueñes). Las muestras se analizaron para la detección de B. burgdorferi s.l. mediante PCR anidada, y las genoespecies se confirmaron mediante secuenciación. Se detectó B. burgdorferi s.l. en 1.4% (12/845) de las ninfas de I. ricinus, en 9.1% (2/33) de los adultosy en el 12.9% (9/70) de los micromamíferos, así como en otras especies de garrapatas. Se secuenciaron 17 garrapatas y 6 micromamíferos PCR positivos. Se identificaron 4 genoespecies: B. afzelii, B. garinii, B. lusitaneae y B. valaisiana. Los análisis filogenéticos del gen flaB muestran la heterogeneidad de B. afzelii en este área. La detección de B. burgdorferi s.l. en garrapatas de la vegetación y en micromamíferos, así como la abundancia de garrapatas y de mamíferos domésticos y silvestres, indican un elevado riesgo de infección por B. burgdorferi s.l. en el área. Esto viene sustentado por los casos registrados en el hospital y muestra la necesidad de controlar la presencia de este patógeno en garrapatas y hospedadores de la zona. Se necesitan más trabajos para determinar el papel de los animales silvestres y el riesgo de transmisión a humanos.

Enfermedad de Louping ill en cabras, España, 2011.

Aunque el louping ill afecta principalmente a las ovejas, se produjo un brote en 2011 en el norte de España en cabras. Las lesiones histopatológicas y la genética molecular identificaron una nueva cepa de virus louping ill, 94% homologa a la cepa de Gran Bretaña.

Diseño de un protocolo de qRT-PCR en tiempo real para la detección y cuantificación específica del virus de la encefalitis caprina española (SGEV).

Recientemente se ha detectadoel virus Loupin ill (LI) en dos lugares diferentes en el norte de España y separado por solo unos 400 km. Usando enfoques moleculares, se ha demostrado que los virus que causan ambos brotes son diferentes al virus LI, pero también son diferentes entre sí. Se les ha llamado SSEV (virus de la encefalitis ovina española) y SGEV (virus de la encefalitis caprina española) teniendo en cuenta las especies de las que se aislaron. El objetivo de este trabajo fue diseñar un protocolo cuantitativo de RT-PCR en tiempo real TaqMan, para el diagnóstico y la cuantificación específicos de SGEV. Se ha probado y establecido la linealidad, la eficiencia y el rango dinámico, así como la reproducibilidad y especificidad del método.

Primera confirmación del virus de Schmallenberg en bovinos en España: distribución en diferentes tejidos y patología.

Entre enero y junio de 2013, se detectaron nueve fetos bovinos nacidos muertos con malformaciones congénitas de nueve rebaños de ganado ubicados en Salamanca (centro de España). La necropsia se realizó en dos terneros. Las lesiones patológicas junto con la genética molecular y los resultados serológicos permitieron un diagnóstico definitivo: la primera confirmación de la infección por el virus de Schmallenberg (SBV) en bovinos en España. Se detectó SBV en diferentes tejidos y fluidos orgánicos en ambos animales, incluida la sangre, lo que sugiere una posible viremia. El cordón umbilical también fue positivo para la presencia de SBV en ambos animales. El tejido anterior proporciona una muestra fácil de obtener y puede ser una muestra de elección cuando se realiza una necropsia en el campo.

Identificacion del Adenovirus canino tipo 1 (CAdV-1) en el oso pardo europeo (Ursus arctos arctos): ¿Es una amenaza para la población cantábrica?

El adenovirus canino tipo 1 (CAdV-1) es responsable de la hepatitis infecciosa canina. La enfermedad se ha descrito en el oso negro americano (Ursus americanus) y el oso pardo europeo (Ursus arctos arctos), y en solo un caso recientemente reportado en un esbardo de un oso pardo en libertad (Ursus arctos horribilis) de Alaska. En este trabajo se resumen los hallazgos relacionados con la presencia y la mortalidad asociada de CAdV-1 en 21 osos pardos del Cántabro (Ursus arctos arctos) sometidos a necropsia en Asturias y Castilla y León entre 1998 y 2018.

Tuberculosis Epidemiology and Badger (Meles meles) Spatial Ecology in a Hot-Spot Area in Atlantic Spain (Acevedo et al. 2019)

We provide a temporal overview (from 2012 to 2018) of the outcomes of tuberculosis (TB) in the cattle and badger populations in a hot-spot in Asturias (Atlantic Spain). We also study the badger's spatial ecology from an epidemiological perspective in order to describe hazardous behavior in relation to TB transmission between cattle and badgers. Culture and single intradermal tuberculin test (SITT) were available for cattle as part of the National Program for the Eradication of TB. A field survey was also carried out in order to determine the paddocks and buildings used by each farm, and the information obtained was stored by using geographic information systems. Moreover, eighty-three badgers were submitted for necropsy and subsequent bacteriological studies. Ten badgers were also tracked, using global positioning system (GPS) collars. The prevalence of TB in cattle herds in the hot-spot increased from 2.2% in 2012 to 20% in 2016; it then declined to 0.0% in 2018. In contrast, the TB prevalence in badgers increased notably (from 5.55% in 2012-2015 to 10.64% in 2016-2018). Both cattle and badgers shared the same strain of Mycobacterium bovis. The collared badgers preferred paddocks used by TB-positive herds in spring and summer (when they were more active). The males occupied larger home ranges than the females (Khr95: males 149.78 ± 25.84 ha and females 73.37 ± 22.91 ha; Kcr50: males 29.83 ± 5.69 ha and females 13.59 ± 5.00 ha), and the home ranges were smaller in autumn and winter than in summer. The averages of the index of daily and maximum distances traveled by badgers were 1.88 ± (SD) 1.20 km and 1.99 ± 0.71 km, respectively. One of them presented a dispersive behavior with a maximum range of 18.3 km. The most preferred habitat was apple orchards in all seasons, with the exception of winter, in which they preferred pastures.

Protective Effect of Oral BCG and Inactivated Mycobacterium bovis Vaccines in European Badgers (Meles meles) Experimentally Infected With M. bovis (Balseiro et al. 2020)

In Europe, badgers (Meles meles) are recognized as major tuberculosis (TB) reservoir hosts with the potential to transmit infection to associated cattle herds. Recent studies in Spain have demonstrated that vaccination with a heat-inactivated Mycobacterium bovis vaccine (HIMB) successfully protects captive wild boar and red deer against progressive disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of two oral vaccines against TB in a badger model: the live-attenuated M. bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin BCG vaccine (Danish strain) and a HIMB vaccine. Twenty-four badgers were separated in three treatment groups: oral vaccinated with live BCG (108 CFU, n = 5), oral vaccinated with HIMB (107 CFU, n = 7), and unvaccinated controls (n = 12). All badgers were experimentally infected with M. bovis (103 CFU) by the endobronchial route targeting the right middle lung lobe. Throughout the study, clinical, immunological, pathological, and bacteriological parameters of infection were measured. Both vaccines conferred protection against experimental TB in badger, as measured by a reduction of the severity and lesion volumes. Based on these data, HIMB vaccination appears to be a promising TB oral vaccine candidate for badgers in endemic countries.

Colangiocarcinoma en un oso pardo (Ursus arctos arctos) del norte de España.

Se encontró un colangiocarcinoma hepático con metástasis en la vesícula biliar, la articulación del codo izquierdo, las glándulas suprarrenales y los pulmones en una hembra de oso pardo eurasiático de 21 años de edad libre (Ursus arctos arctos) en Asturias . Se describen los hallazgos macroscópicos e histopatológicos.

El análisis por RNA-Seq de la válvula ileocecal y sangre periférica de bovinos Holstein infectados con Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, muestra una desregulación de la vía de señalización CXCL8 / IL8.

La paratuberculosis es una enteritis granulomatosa crónica de rumiantes causada por Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). La secuenciación completa de ARN (RNA-Seq) es una fuente prometedora de nuevos biomarcadores para la infección temprana por MAP y la progresión de la enfermedad en el ganado. Dado que el transcriptoma de sangre se usa ampliamente como fuente de biomarcadores, analizamos si recapitula, al menos en parte, el transcriptoma de la válvula ileocecal (ICV), el sitio primario de colonización por MAP.

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