Servicio de Zoonosis Emergentes, de Baja Prevalencia y Agresivos BiológicosNeglected and Emerging Diseases Unit performs epidemiological surveillance and monitoring of emerging pathogens and / or ignored in different host species (and potential vectors in their case). Some of these infectious agents have a low apparent prevalence, which makes not taken into account as priorities in most animal health programs despite the serious consequences that may involve their presence. The reality is that the real situation of many of these diseases is unknown, due to changes in climate and the increase in migratory movements have created favorable conditions for propagation in environments initially free of them. Epidemiological surveillance is a useful and effective tool in preventing and controlling outbreaks. The service works with local government and autonomous communities in the monitoring of various diseases.